§ Chris Grayling:
To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills which higher education institutions have had funding for a specific area of research activity withdrawn in the past three years. 
§ Alan Johnson:
The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) allocates research funding selectively to universities according to the quality and volume of their research activity as measured in periodic Research Assessment Exercises (RAEs). Institutions receive this funding as block grant and are free to determine their own research focus. The volume of research achieving top quality ratings sharply increased in the 2001 RAE. HEFCE has modified its funding formula to refocus available resources on this highest quality work to ensure our research remains globally competitive.