§ Mr. Mackinlay
To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, pursuant to his answer of 5 May 1999,Official Report, column 421, on UN peacekeeping, if he will list the cases which have arisen, other than in Kosovo, when in the light of all the circumstances a limited use of force has been deemed justifiable under international law in support of purposes laid down by the Security Council. 
§ Mr. Tony Lloyd
A limited use of force was deemed justifiable in support of the purposes laid down by the Security Council but without the council's express authorisation in order to avert a humanitarian catastrophe in Iraq shortly after the Gulf War. The No Fly Zones were established in 1991 (northern Iraq) and 1992 (southern Iraq) in support of UNSCR 688 which called on Iraq to end its brutal repression of the civilian population: coalition aircraft help protect the interests of the Shias in 185W the south and the Kurds and other minorities in the north by ensuring Iraqi aircraft cannot fly below the 33rd or above the 36th parallel.