§ Mr. Ron Davies
asked the Secretary of State for the Environment what reports he has received concerning tree damage allegedly attributed to acid rain.
§ Mrs. Rumbold
Copies of the following reports prepared in the past year are available to the Department of the EnvironmentA report by the Forestry Commission entitled "Forest Health and Air Pollution, 1984, Survey" (Forestry Commission Research and Development Paper 142) which concluded "the 1984 survey of Sitka and Norway spruce and Scots pine in Great Britain has shown no evidence of any new form of forest damage. Stands in less than perfect health can 18W be accounted for without invoking pollution damage. Nevertheless, only repeated surveys will show whether Britain has indeed escaped the blight which has descended on the forests of central Europe".A report entitled "Beech Health Study" by D. Lonsdale and J. N. Gibbs for the Forestry Commission (Research Information Note 100/85/PATH) which concluded, amongst other things, that no prima facie evidence for pollution damage has as yet been found but further conclusions must await a complete analysis of the data.
A recent report of a survey by the Friends of the Earth on acid rain damage to trees in Britain which concluded, among other things, that typical symptoms of acid rain damage to trees are now widespresd in Britain.
§ Mr. Ron Davies
asked the Secretary of State for the Environent if he will list those research projects receiving Government support for the investigation of acid deposition on (a) wildlife, (b) agricultural ecosystems and (c) buildings and structures and state the sums involved.
§ Mrs. Rumbold
The following is a list of research projects in my Department's current research programme relating to the effects of acid deposition on the natural environment and buildings:
Research project Total cost £ 1. The effects of acid rain on upland soils and streams 244,200 2. Chemical inputs from precipitation and their effect on a catchment 129,000 3. Effects on acidification on lakes and streams in Scotland 147,000 4. Effects of acid rain on plants and soils 569,000 5. Effects of afforestation and land management on the acidity of 5 catchments in Wales 272,000 6. Effects of acid rain on freshwater eco-systems in north-west England 176,000 7. Effects of acid deposition and photo-oxidants on trees 184,000 8. Aspects of pollutant attack on limestone buildings 49,000 9. Degradation of building materials in the presence of air pollutants 70,500 10. Identification and assessment of materials damage by air pollution 25,500 11. Effects of atmospheric nitrogen compounds on natural vegetation 87,200 12. Effects of low temperature fluctuation on the sensitivity of crops and trees to air pollutant damage 67,000 13. Effects of air pollution on metallic materials 150,000 14. Pollutant take-up and stone decaying southern Britain 27,000 15. Effects of acid deposition on vertical surfaces 19,500 16. Development of methodologies to evaluate stock at risk from air pollution 10,700 Total 2,227,600
I understand that the following relevant research projects are also receiving Government support:
Project Total Cost £ Scottish Office: acid deposition at Loch Dee 75,000 Welsh Office: ecological monitoring of acid rain in Wales 32,000 Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food: the response of barley to sulphur dioxide at concentrations controlled by fumigation 65,200 Forestry Commission: effects of ambient levels of air pollution on tree growth in rural areas * * This work is being undertaken directly by the Forestry Commission. The capital cost of equipment is £190,000 and about 2½ man years effort a year will be required.
Natural Environment Research Council Project Cost in 1984–85 £ 1. Acidification of run-off from melting snow pack 16,500 2. Effects of ambient air pollutants on plant growth in and around London 24,300 3. Assessment of likely concentrations of toxic products of SO 2 and NO x fumigation of plants at their site of action 4,400 4. Effects of gaseous pollutants on the interaction between plants and invertebrate herbivores 3,600 5. Physiological effects of SO 2 pollution in water stressed plants 6,000 6. Physiological Biochemical and ultra-structural role of calcium in the gills of freshwater teleosts and arthropods with respect to survival at low pH 16,000 7. Interception of wind blown fog by vegetation and pathways for pollutant deposition 13,700 27,700 (50 per cent 8. Chemical speciation of Aluminium from DOE) 12,000 (50 per cent 9. Diatom survey related to pH and water chemistry from DOE) 10. Measurement of pH in freshwaters 19,000 11. Trophic relationships and effects of acid waters on stream invertebrates 15,000 9,000 (50 per cent 12. Acid deposition and ground water from EEC) 29,000 13. Effects of different forest canopies on the gross precipitation passing to the soil (50 per cent from DOE) 23,700 (50 per cent 14. Effects of acid precipitation on river catchments from DOE) 102,000 (40 per cent from 15. Effects of polluted atmospheres on crops MAFF) 16. Interaction of airborne pollutants with natural surfaces in particular epicuticular wax of scots pine 5,000 17. Interaction of grazing and air pollution 26,500 18. Measurement of the rate of dry deposition of SO 2 on a Scots pine forest 13,600 19. Chemical composition of rainfall through Northern Britain 33,900 20. Effect of acid rain on the extension growth of Sitka spruce 3,800 21. Influence of rainfall acidity on transport and exchange of gases between plants and atmosphere 3,200 22. Hydro-chemistry of run-off from upland catchments 26,500 23. Transient acid surges in upland streams 54,000 Total 488,400